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The World Since 1914

Second-to-Last Lecture (5 May 1976 - Monday)

By Carroll Quigley




[Ladies and Gentlemen]


   All right.  Now, a number of things are coming up every minute.  For example, I....  There are people gunning for me because of my article ["America's Future in Energy", Current History, Vol, 69, No. 407, July / August 1975, pp. 1 - 5, 43 - 46]  And, incidentally, there's, most of the world will totally reject everything I am saying, because they have been totally brainwashed in reductionism.  And I get letters and, occasionally, 'phone calls.  For example, I got letters this Friday criticizing me, the article bitterly and pointing out the University of Maryland and other places had made studies which show that, if you do not use chemical fertilizers on land, your yield of food falls drastically.  But nobody ever denies that.


   There are two kinds of agriculture.  Absolutely different.  Organic agriculture and chemical agriculture.  And you cannot change one thing, by leaving out....  In other words you cannot in chemical agriculture [just] leave out the fertilizer.  Naturally you're going to get bad yields.  But we have careful studies.  The best study, of course, was financed by the Department of Agriculture  XXXX  land grant university college, like Maryland.  They all are in together, and they are totally controlled by the corporations, like ITT and Keneco.  Keneco is an aerospace corporation, which is now deeply involved.  I believe it is about the third largest agricultural corporation in the United States to-day.  In other words, we have cut from five billion to three and a half billion [dollars] in the space program.  Incidentally, just the other day I said it was down to a billion.  It is not.  It is still at three and a half billion.  The space program.  Which is at least two or even three billion too high.  It should be drastically cut.  I won't go into, don't have time.  But there is a professor named O'Neill [Gerard Kitchen O'Neill, 1927 - 1992, professor of physics at Princeton University, 1965 - 1985] for instance, at Princeton, who is trying to get the space program to solve the energy shortage by an enormous space vehicle that will have a permanent colony of ten thousand people on it.  He could have put it up in space, and they going to live there, forever.  And because the mathematics shows clearly you couldn't build it and send it from the Earth, he's going to build it on the Moon.  In other words, this is going to cost hundred and hundreds of billions of dollars.  And it's, it's complete insanity.


   Now, understand.   They don't think, deep in their hearts.  Maybe they do.  Who knows what a reductionist believes.  If you leave out evidence, if you leave out vital evidence, then you can prove anything.  And that's what they're doing.  For example, he's, he's got trees and things growing on this space vehicle, and plan[t]s.  And I looked and said:  "All right.  Where is the prison?  Where's the insane asylum?"  Because they're all going to be insane very quickly, living there, you know.  And never being in touch with nature at all.  But where's the prison for the hijackers and the hostage holders and the saboteurs?  The skin of this space vehicle is going to be aluminum, and it's going to be three thousands of an millimetre thick.  Which means if a grain of sand hits it, it's going to be penetrated.  I won't go into it, but, though, the reason I'm yelling about it, I have reasons for all this.  On Friday I read the last issue of Science and the first article is by O'Neill and it's this whole thing.  Now, what he wants is the billions.  He wants to get his hungry mouth on some of the billions that, if we attempt to do this, would start flowing out of the government.  A government that doesn't have the money, apparently, to finish the subway here.  A subway, I think now, after this weekend, is finished.  In other words, it will not be... XXXX whether or not XXXX


   XXXX  because it'd be too dangerous XXXX


   I won't go into these or what's wrong with it.  But what I was trying to show you last time, I didn't succeed, were the absolute myths.  Why a bureaucratic system is inevitably a cancer system, because it recruits petty bourgeois people who have no anything, except the position they can occupy, and the titles they can obtain, and the fringe benefits that they can get.  The reason [the character, Tom Rath, in the novel ] The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit, you know, [by Sloan Wilson, 1920 - 2003] that came out ten years ago [actually, twenty years ago], the highlight in his life was when he got a key to his own bathroom.  He had made it.  He was now a high enough executive to have his own bathroom, locked, with a key.  A piece of metal? This is the biggest achievement in your life?  


   Now, this is outside.  External thing.  Now, what's happening is:  these people who come in (I said to you last time, and I never could get the thought across) are all people generally who never had a nickel when they were growing up.  And they become absolutely compulsive spenders.  They have got to spend enormous sounds, sums of money.  And not their money.  And they're always going to do everything in the most expensive way.  For example, you notice, the people who are planning the Metro system here are all people who never had a thing.  So, the buses must have wall-to-wall carpeting.  The buses.  They must have, every upholstered seat, even though the upholstered seats are so inflammable they are almost explosive.  And they want to put that in the subways too.  And when the Bureau of Standards showed that the whole bus would be a mass of flames in less than a couple of minutes, they still are not going to make the change.


   But why do they do this?  Any transportation vehicle should be like a World War II bomber.  Everything non-flamable.  And you don't go on a bus for comfort.  In fact, there's too damned much comfort in the United States.  Half the people in the United States have back troubles because their mattresses are too shush, too soft, or so forth.  Or the seats in the automobiles are too soft.  In fact, XXXX radio XXXX in a mushy XXXX cars.  Which is the reason I own, I own  entirely foreign cars.  The best car i ever...  I say to people the best car I ever had was twenty-five horse-power Morris Minor in 1954.  And they say "What was so good about it?"  Well, I said, told them:  "it's forty miles per gallon.  But torsion bar suspension!".  At seventy-five miles an hour, I could go around curves that a, you'd have to go down to fifteen in a [Lincoln] Continental.  Because I've driven Continentals too.  i used to drive them all the time.  In the Christmas time in the Miami Airport when I'd meet people from California, cousins coming for Christmas XXXX Continental XXXX my wife's farm, my wife's farm.


   All right.  The people who are against me, and attacking me, over the energy article are all reductionists.  For example, if I... The alternatives are chemical agriculture or organic agriculture.  Well, if I make a chemical agriculture set-up, and put a chemical fertilizer on this plot and [there's] another plot next to it, exactly the same, and I don't put the fertilizer on it, naturally the output per acre is, on that one, is going to be greater than the output per acre on this.  But then I can say:  "What's the value of output per acre?  Who cares?" What you care [about] is a maximum amount of healthful food.   And the food from organic agriculture is far better, in terms of health.  


   And then I'll put on the figures:  The cancer rate in the last year and, in fact, for the first seven months of this year, has gone up astronomically.  The government is frightened to death.  It's bound to.  Because land pollution, atmospheric pollution, all comes from chemical agriculture and then chemical food processing.  The Department of Agriculture to-day is not concerned at all with agriculture.  It is concerned with food processing.  And the food processing plants are going backward into the chemical agriculture.


   Now similarly, if I took two plots, because I'm going to test it, and set them up on the basis of organic agriculture. And this one I give the full organic treatment.  And this [other] one I leave out the compost.  Naturally, that one is going to produce more than this one.  So it's a fake test.  On the other hand, we now have reports (but I can't give you the citation.  They just came out this year) with, they took sixteen farms, of the same size and everything.  One run by a chemical compony and the other by the organic system.  And the profit was slightly more for the chemical one.  Now, let's say it was the same.  The profit was the same.  But you see, profit isn't what we wish that you be concerned with.  Notice everybody leaves out the health.  The quality of the food.  If you lose your health, you got nothing.  You know that.  What's the sense in being a multi-millionaire if you've got no health?  You can't do anything with the money. XXXX They're just going to fill the empty space, which is nothing, with money.


   All right.  Food is in three categories, or four, if you wish.  Energy food, which is sugar and starch.  This is stuff you burn up your body and jump around, like I do.  Notice we have refined sugar.  Refined sugar is vicious.  Later I'll give you some things to prove this.  If you put starch in your mouth, it should split.  In your spit is an enzyme which splits starch into sugar.  So this is, if you are eating, eating a starch, you must chew it thoroughly, such as bread.  But if it's Wonder Bread, it doesn't matter what you do with it.  XXXX whether you swallow it whole without taking the wrapper off.  Then people have protein.  And fat.  Now, the, about protein.  There are twenty-four amino acids; but, since we can make most of them, there are only eight you must take.  And, you must, the diet must have all eight, because, if you have only seven, you cannot use those seven at all.  Those seven will pass right through your body.  And they're gone.  You must have all eight.  You get that by a mixed diet,  "Complementarity", Lappé [Frances Moore Lappé, 1944 - 2---] calls it.  I told you about Dr. Lappé's [book, 1971] Diet for a Small Planet.  All right.  These fats and proteins could come either from vegetables sources or animal sources.  And animal sources are from dairy products or from meat.  In other words, to have cheese.  


   Fat. The significant thing about fat is this:  you do need fat, because certain vitamins, and other things, are only soluble not in water, but in fat. So there must be fat in, to dissolve the vitamins.  Fats come un-saturated, generally, all vegetable fats come un-saturated.  Un-saturated means that you've got a chain of carbons, saturated with carbons, oxygen, hydrogen, and maybe a few other things.  And you've chains of carbons.  When they are un-saturated they are liquid.  And they have links out to grasp other things, such as vitamins.  So they become vehicles.  Un-saturated fats become the vehicle for taking poisons and minerals out of your body, but also moving vitamins and proteins and other things around in your body.  Now, they can become saturated.  Un-saturated fats can become saturated, either by linking into oxygen (when they do that we call them "rancid."  You wouldn't want to eat anything rancid.  You see, because it'd taste lousy.  They become thicker, generally, at that point).  So, but, if you do not take in oxygen, but you put hydrogen on, they then become saturated.  So to-day if you buy saturated fat, they have been hydrogenated, i.e., all of those connections have had hydrogen put on them.  Which means they're worthless for taking up vitamins or poisons or metals in your system.  So they just deposit in your system, in various places.  And you'll find people who their heart has all around it a mass of fat.  So we now have people saying:  use un-saturated fat.  They're even using safflower, which is, you know, a vegetable. XXXX In general, do not use saturated fat, or processed fat, or hydrogenated fat.  Or, in general, don't use animal fat,  If you can avoid it. That's the fats, and the proteins.


   Fiber, I indicated to you is that you must have.   The other weekend I mentioned to somebody that I was going to talk about this and they said: "Tell them about the new book on fiber".  The.  You know somebody wrote a book.  I forget his name.  Matthew or something.   I'm not sure of his name.   [actually it is: David R. Reuben. 1933 - 2---, a psychiatrist]. Called: What You All....,   Everything You Wanted to Know About Sex, and Were Afraid to Ask [actually, Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex* (*But Were Afraid to Ask), 1969].   But I don't know if that means anything to you, but it was a hell of a best seller about three or four years ago.  All right, he has now written a book on fibers. [The Save Your Life Diet:  High Fiber Protection From Six of the Most Serious Diseases of American Life, 1976]   And he's showing how essential fibers are for the diet  XXXX  You must take a very large amount of fiber.  If you have processed food, they've eliminated all the fiber.    And this has lead to a tremendous increase in intestinal cancer, which is one of the kinds of cancer of the colon, lower intestine, and so forth    So what would you do? XXXX the rules.  Do not eat energy food, or energy.  What you'll find is that many foods, that you, all snack foods, practically, are energy foods.  They are loaded with sugar.  Now, to indicate to you a kind of a, here I'm getting toward the medical.  Like every field in the United States, and including history, the medical field to-day is a disaster, catastrophic area.  All they're doing is spiraling costs, while health goes down.  In the period in which the costs of medical services in the United States went from twenty to a hundred and twenty billion [dollars], the death rate has increased, and the expectation of life has been reduced, of those aged 20 [years].  Three years ago, my brother [John Andrew Quigley. M.D., 1909 - 1994] said to me:  "Don't pay any attention to this, these statistics on the increasing expectation of life at birth".  You know, the expectation of life at birth fifty years ago was 45 years, and then it went up to 75, at birth.  He said  "All of it is that they keep infants that are born, who would have died the same day, they keep them alive for six months."  Or people that would have died at age 2 for genetic problems, they keep them alive now to 14.  And so forth.  This makes the statistics look good.  But they're semi-cripples.  Cystic fibrosis people.   All used to die before puberty.  I knew a girl very well, who lived to be 19, and would allow you XXXX any general risk.  But she spent her whole life going to the National....  Human.  An experiment for the National Institute of Health.  She was the only child, and her parents were nuts over her, and so forth.  But, you know, this goes into the statistics, you know, as an increased expectation of life.   However, the figures we now have, for the males aged 10, is that the expectation of life is falling.  Expectation of life for Americans used to be about third in the world.


   It is now thirty-second.  There are thirty-one countries where a 10 year old male's expectation of life is greater than in the United States.  And this is due to what I am attacking here, i.e., chemical agriculture, excessive chemical processing of food.  Let me give you an example.  I just [made a] crack at Wonder Bread.  Bread used to be made out of whole wheat. Now, I've already told you, the grain of the wheat has three parts to it    The first thing they did in the processing is they took off the bran.  They took off, they took this wheat germ.  They threw both away.  That is they threw away the fiber and they threw away much of the valuable amino acids.  And what was left was the starch.  It was this.


   That starch is in the form called gluten.  It's what you can make paste out of, if you want to stick it, paste it all together, or something.  Why?  Now, when you use whole wheat bread, you used to, you didn't put sugar in it. They didn't have sugar.  Instead they put malt in.  Now, if you take seeds and let them sprout, they increase drastically.  And now organic food people eat sprouts.  That's all kinds of seeds and greens, which they sprout with water and it only takes over-night, in most cases.  And you....  I tried this last week, with wheat; and it's so unbelievably sweet.  Malt is wheat sprouts, or barley sprouts, and from it they made beer and bread.  Incidentally, beer is liquid bread.  Or, if you wish, bread is solidified beer.  Because, in other words, they're made by similar processes.  Both of them are made by sugar and yeast and starch, which [are] processed to create carbon dioxide, and so forth, so that, in a sense, beer is a food.  And, if you have to, if you wanted to drink something other than milk, you might well drink beer.  But just don't drink too much of it.  


   To show you what XXXX I wanted to tell you, I started to put something about the medical profession.  The medical profession to-day is loaded with fads.  Every ten years it's totally different XXXX the XXXX is different.  And they're usually the opposite.  One of the worst of all is the paediatricians, i.e., the ones who tell you what to do when your baby is born, or before your baby is born.  Everything they have told in the last fifty years has been wrong.  By the time they discovered they were wrong, it is too late.  My first son [Thomas Fox Quigley, 1941 - 1995] was born in 1941.  The paediatrician and the doctor, the Dr. Wolfe ???? Bolt, who graduated from Georgetown University -- I'm not running down Georgetown University.  They're all, one's as bad as the other -- and he said to my wife:  "Oh, you mustn't nurse the child.  Use a formula."  All right, the first formula was made out of Carnation Milk.  To-day they would...  Now Carnation Milk is, first of all, It['s] got lead in it, because the cans are tin with lead.  But it is very, it's filled with sugar.  Then, after you get finished with the formula, you put them on processed baby food, which comes in jars.  That is almost entirely sugar and water, with a little flavoring.  You should never [with] infants, if you ever have children, I hope you do, they must be nursed and then, when you start giving them solid food, you must give them organic food that you'd eat yourself, broken up with a blender of some kind.  And not this.  I.... Baby food, because it's sugar, you could, children to-day, become addicted to sugar.  And, the sugar industry just loves this.  So that you got to have a closet full of sugar.   As well as full of coca, cocaine. XXXX You know what that is.  And the people, this, you're hooked.  Because all these things are addictive.  Sugar is addictive.  Cocoa is addictive (or chocolate is addictive).  Tea and coffee are addictive.  That's all right, if you want to be, have things that are addictive.  If you want to look at a jar or something, and say "This thing is bigger than I am".  Which is essentially what you are saying.  Now, in other words, I can't give it up.  Like most of it is addictive.


   Well, the whole business of American food to-day is to get you hung up and hooked on what they are selling.  And they XXXX Coke and XXXX cigarettes and XXXX something.  And the government subsidizes it.  The government is warning you to not smoke cigarettes    And they are still subsidizing tobacco growing and all the rest of it.  And they have price maintenance.  And support price.  Price support.  And so forth.  


   Now, once you are hung up on this baby food with sugar, then you want sugar cereal.  Now you have then seen the investigation was made of breakfast cereal   All of the advertising is aimed at children.  And the children have all [gotten] hung up on TV, because parents want to get rid of them.  Most parents in America to-day, middle class parents, don't want their kids.   Oh, they say, call me insane for saying this.   But it's the truth.  It's so easy to get rid of them.  Babysitters, or almost anything.  Send them off to Kindergarten now at age two.  Or something below Kindergarten.   They now have specialty schools below Kindergarten.  XXXX Get rid of them.  And that's why, therefore, they put on the TV at the crack of dawn, and put the child, his body's here in front of the TV He's there most of the day.  He finally gets to the point what he sees what they're advertising.  They're advertising what the studies call "empty calories", i.e., some kind of corn flakes, or flake cereal, that's doused with dyes, chemical dys, which are poisonous, like red #2, which is a poison, and sugar. 


   One final thing is:  don't over-feed your baby.  It's a good thing for the infant to be hungry.  The position is this:  the number of fat cells in the body is not genetically determined.  The fat cells are cells that store fat, when you've too much for the body to use as a vehicle, or they don't  eliminate.  And if you feed a baby at the time when he is developing his cells, that's from infancy on, the first couple of years, or over-feed them, they have a over-supply of fat cells.  And if they stay on a diet, then the fat cells remain empty.  But if they just eat normally, the fat cells swell up.  In other words, a constant tendency to [become] overweight.  On a good diet there should never be a tendency to overweight.  Except, possibly, there may be some groups in the world that are genetically that way.  For example, there are certain groups from Africa where the women are that, genetically that way.  And there are certain groups, I would say, in southern Germany, in the upland, highland areas, which are genetically that way.  In other words, they grow very quickly and store fat.


   Now I'll give you the rules on food.  Avoid empty foods, empty protein foods.  On protein foods:  eat vegetable proteins rather than animal proteins.  And read Lappé on how you do it.   Eat low on the food chain.  "Low on the food chain" means:  here you have the Earth, there you have vegetables, there you have [herbivore] animals, and there you have carnivores.  That's the food chain.  So then, for example, fish, a carnivore, would be a tuna fish.  All right, avoid tuna fish.  You know, they, because they have concentrated the poisons in them in the atmosphere.  You know, the warning about mercury in tuna fish, recently?  That was because it's the end of the food chain.  The same thing would be true, for example,  of a hawk or an eagle, who are carnivores.  And do not eat animals, but eat vegetables.  Low on the food chain.   Next, avoid processed or refined food.  If you must use a sweetening, the best you can use, probably, is molasses.  Here I will give you some of the sweetenings:  White sugar is the worst.  I'll try to give them in....  Honey.  Maple sugar, probably.  Brown sugar.  And molasses.  Now, what do I, why do I put them in that order?


   Because white sugar has the least nourishment.  It is pure energy.  And it is extremely bad for you.   In fact, the dietitians now call white flour and white sugar "the white death", because of the bad results it has on people eating it.  XXXX people eating too much. I'm going to put down two things here.  We don't really have time for this.  Here's calcium, here's phosphorus, here's potassium, and here is sodium.  Now, these are all things that we need in our bodies.  In white sugar there is none, none of the phosphorus; 3.0 (incidentally, these figures are milligrams in every hundred grams); and 1.0 for sodium.  


   Let me go into molasses.  Calcium is 684.  Phosphorus is 84.  Potassium is 2,927.  Sodium 96.  And the others are in between.   Now, for instance, I usually   have brown sugar on my cereal in the morning.  Brown sugar is 85, 19, 344 and 30.


   All right.  That is the third rule, I guess:  Avoid processed or refined food.  Avoid all additives  And now, generally, they're supposed to be labelled.  But, as a matter of fact, the labelling is not adequate and isn't complete.  There are now totally artificial foods, that they're not made from anything but chemicals.  And they do not tell you and, in many cases, what is on them.  There is no need of adding anything.  For instance, enriched bread.  They put back a little trace in the white flour of what had been taken out when they refined it.  They not only refined it, but then they bleached it.  Go to the store and try to find un-bleached flour.  Very difficult.  [Question from student:  Is profit the reason for it?]  Yeah, yeah, it's profits.  There are reasons, various reasons for it.  For example, the bran they take off, because the whole process of protein ennourishment ???? is, is this. it's fibre, you know, It isn't just indigestible.  It's supposed to be in your food.  The reason that they take this out is that this won't keep.  One of the things is what they call shelf life.  Shelf life is how long they can leave it on the shelf and still sell it.  And wheat germ you cannot leave on the shelf long.  It has to go quickly, and be consumed, you see.  They, the things that they inform ???? you that they put in.  Bread, they put in hundreds of things in.  Most of them, as far as we know, are poisons.  And this is for shelf life and other things.  I just now explained.  I haven't quite gotten to it yet. 


   Avoid additives.  Often chemicals.  To-day chemicals are put in just about everything.  For flavor, to replace the flavor, the nutrients and the quality which were lost in the processing.  So that enriched bread they put in a little B1, although twenty times as much B1 was taken out when they refined it from whole wheat flour.  At the moment, whole wheat flour probably costs more.  It should cost less.  In the sense XXXX store, it had whole wheat flour, they got to keep it moving XXXX a little bit at a time.  Now, you'll notice these stores where you can buy whole wheat flour, it, the shelf is empty now.  They have not caught on.  The people have caught on.  And they're trying to buy it.  But I can buy at the health foods store out here at the Army Map Service for, well, in twenty-five pounds at a time, a buck twenty-eight, seven, a pound.  And you'll find things out there much cheaper, for example, basil out there is eight dollars a pound.  I raise it for nothing.  But if you buy it, basil, you buy basil in a little package, they sell it for eight dollars a pound.  Caraway seeds, which, you know, you put in Irish bread, fifty-nine cents for two ounces.  But I'll tell you you can buy it for seventy-nine cents per pound.  I believe that's it.   And so forth.


   Now, bread, modern bread.  It used to be that you put whole wheat flour, and you put some kind of sweetening in it to start it.  The best sweetening was malt.  Now, to make health bread, you put in....  I make, we make our whole wheat bread with honey generally.  But we may go back to malt just as an experiment, to see.  Then you put yeast in.  Now, what the yeast does is, it eats on the sugar and creates carbon dioxide, and the carbon dioxide then blows the bread up.  It rises we say.  And it rises because of the gluten in there, which made a tenacious, sticky thing which forms the surface that will hold it, hold it.  And, you can use the recipe in Lappé for whole wheat bread.  It's an incredible experience, really, for the children who make bread XXXX aunts made it all the time.  We had a big thing that we had to turn it to make, but you don't need that.

   But in any case, to-day what they do is they take only the gluten, which is purified.  They don't use yeast.  They then fill it full of preservatives, conditioners, coloring, everything that you could possibly think of.  And then they whip air into it, by mechanical means.  And that's what makes it rise.  Now, one of the things, it doesn't get stale.  And they tell you, oh, good bread is the bread you can squeeze, you know, and it comes right back again.  Which is nonsense.  The reason that this Wonder Bread, if it's not sold, is squeezed and comes right back again is because they put into there something that turns into a kind of rubber.  And the fact that it is indigestible doesn't mean a thing.  They don't care if it's indigestible, you understand.  These people don't care.  


   I indicated to you last time there is an artificial sweetener [aspartame a/k/a NutriSweet] which was put on the market about two years ago by a chemist, a chemical firm called Searle [G. D. Searle and Company, founded in 1888 by Gideon Daniel Searle].  And the government is now notifying  Searle that they're going to withdraw it from the market because they discovered they falsified all of their tests.  They deliberately falsified and they took their word for it.


   And see what happens is:  somebody inside gets mad at the firm, because he doesn't get the promotion he wants, so he releases the truth, sometimes to Jack Anderson [Jack Northman Anderson, 1922 - 2005, syndicated newspaper investigative journalist].  And [it's] even better to Jack Anderson, because if they do it to the Department of Agriculture, they will throw it away, probably.  Because they are part of the chemical companies.  To-day it is the chemical companies that control and dominate American agriculture.   And the Department of Agriculture.  And so forth.


   Many foods are additive, are addictive.  That's habit-forming.  Chief[ly], coffee, sugar, chocolate, and so forth.  But there is a substitute for chocolate.  In this New Year's we made brownies.  They were much better than XXXX It is called carob ----  c-a-r-o-b,   It's $1.65 a pound, which just means, means it's not that much more expensive than chocolate.  And it is another vegetable, from the vegetable plant that is organic, and so forth.

   Then protein complementarity is what Lappé is seeking.  That is, you put together protein, which will give you the desire ????, with....   And combine the proper proportions of grains, legumes, seed, and  dairy products, to produce a high quality, complete protein.  Now, I gave you the example.  They're telling us that we, unless we go hog-wild with chemical agriculture, on a world-wide basis, which would mean that all the nations of Africa would be slaves of the same chemical companies, XXXX. Misuro, and the rest of them, or I. G. Farben Industry or somebody like that, you know, or the biggest monopoly, obviously the monopoly in England, Imperial Chemical Industries.  I.C.I.  So they would be dominating the whole world?  But they're wrong.   Because they would be dominated, exceedingly dominated, by Chase Manhattan and so forth, the banks in New York, which, of course, are controlled XXXX by the Rockefellers.  It all fits together.


   Millet.  It's bird seed.  Human beings generally in this country don't eat it.  But in north China they ate it.  Millet has seven of the necessary amino acids in it.  Now, it's very cheap if you get it with the shells on.  But, if you get it with the shells off, then it's more expensive.  I don't know, thirty-five a pound.  I don't know  XXXX  But the eighth animo acid that you must XXXX is in milk.  It's the most...  It's the biggest in the milk.  So there is a cheap diet which will give you the eight amino acids that you need, from vegetable protein.  Let me give you a few figures.  These are from Lappé.

One and a half cup of beans, and four cups of rice,

have as much protein as a nineteen ounce steak.

One cup of chick peas, and one and a half of sesame seed,

ten and a half ounces of steak.

Half a cup of soy beans, and five cups of rice,

have as much as [a] eighteen and a half ounce steak.

Notice that the Chinese are, [have] been eating this way for a long time.

Two cups of soy flour, and eight cups of whole wheat flour,

are equivalent to a thirty-four ounce steak, more than two pounds.

Two cups of soy flour, or is it, one cup of soy flour, three cups of corn meal, and three cups of dry milk 

   (Incidentally, you get all that's good in dry milk.  You don't have to have liquid milk.  You can get dry.  And this is what they are throwing away, and this is what they're giving the poor on this Food Stamp Program, because they have so much of it).

That would be equivalent to nineteen and a quarter ounces of steak

Three cups of whole wheat flour, six table spoons of dry milk,

equivalent to a nine ounce steak.

Seven and a half cups of whole wheat flour, one half cup dry milk, one cup peanut butter,

almost equivalent to a one pound steak.

Two fifths cup dry milk, three potatoes

(Milk and potatoes. This is what made the Irish healthy and gave them too much population until the famine came)

Six and a three quarters ounce steak.

   In fact, the Irish, on milk, cabbage and potatoes, were in perfect health.  And by "perfect health" I mean they went to well onto maturity without a single cavity.  The only people you can find now, these days, that have perfect teeth are some people from southern Italy and Sicily.  XXXX  diet as a whole XXXX  But as soon as modern stuff comes in, and, above all, white sugar or hard candy or anything like that, then immediately their teeth are gone. XXXX not directly, but recent trends of health and long life, that the poorest people, particularly in the ghettoes in the cities, eat the most highly processed foods, which are the most expensive and the most damaging.  So the poorest people, and what they are eating are snack foods and TV dinners.  Macke came on this campus selling snack food.  Snack food.  In fact, Macke is a snack food industry.  And this is the university that is going to take care of your spiritual life, your intellectual life, your emotional life, and your physical life.  And, as far as I can see, everything they do is damaging to all four of them.  Maybe even to your social life.  They don't even do much for that.


   And TV dinners and snack foods are the most expensive and have the poorest health prospects.  The government pays more than a dozen doctors, last year, more than a hundred thousand dollars each for medical care for the poor.   In other words, in this city alone, I believe, there are four doctors giving medical care to Negroes and others in the ghettoes.  And the government is paying them.  And they are making over a hundred thousand dollars a year.  This has gone on for years.    Some of them make up, one makes up even four hundred thousand a year.  Now what he does is just rushing people through his office, all day long, and giving them all kinds of pills and things, most of which are injurious.  If you place anything in your mouths which is unnatural, XXXX


   Many organic foods are now more expensive, although they are less processed.  But many are more reasonable.  Such as dry milk.  Whole wheat products, XXXX


   Now, what I'm going to do in the next class, which is Wednesday, is try to put much of this together.  And I want to show to you something that I've put on this board before.  What I'm going to do, is try to show you the whole economic system to-day.  What we have to-day is a cancer economy.  A cancer society.  By a cancer, I mean compulsive, un-restrained growth.  Every corporation, every bureaucratic structure, for example, XXXX  a piece on the officers in the American Navy.  We have now in the American Navy a general for every vessei,  I mean an admiral for every vessei that we have.  We have eight captains for every vessel that we have.  In the old days, only the commanding officer of a battleship was a captain.  An admiral, by definition, has to have a fleet of vessels.  We have the Army the same way.  It's totally top heavy.  It has combat men.  A few.  But behind every combat man there's about twenty-five others, who are just on for the ride.


   Notice that Georgetown University, the compulsion here to expand.  They secretly every year take in more than they admit and then they claim they don't have rooms enough, they don't have housing enough, so then they have to build and build and build   And they've got plans going for centuries as to what they're going to build.  

   They've been dreaming of years, for years, of taking over the Archbold estate, across from the Medical School.  in spite of the fact that they treated the Archbold family like dirt when they were here.  Although they were multi-millionaires, they wouldn't even know who they are.   They don't even know the names of people, which is a...  Page Hufty [Page Lee Hufty, 1947 - 2---, married to Benjamin Howell Griswold IV and Theodore Bell, Jr.].  You've heard of Page Hufty.  She's now the dream girl of Washington, D.C.  Page Hufty is Mrs. Archbold [Anne Mills Archbold,1873 - 1968, married in 1906 to, and divorced in 1922 from, Armar Datrolles Saunders, a British MP.  She was a daughter of John Dustin Archbold, 1848 - 1916, and was the creator in 1922 of the Hillandale Estate in Burleith, Washington, D.C.]'s granddaughter [actually, her grand-neice].  Her [Page's] sister [Alexandra Page Hufty, 1937- - 2---, married to Michael Alfred Reynal, John Anthony Hayes III, and William George Anlyan ] was here in the Foreign Service School and she never graduated.  I won't go into the story as to why XXXX.  They [Georgetown University's administrators] wanted to get the, the Archbold estate.  Archbold [John Dustin Archbold, 1848 - 1916, vice president of the Standard Oil Company 1875 - 1911 and president of the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey, 1911 - 1916], you know, was one of the original nine Standard Oil partners.  And this is why, when Nelson Rockefeller [Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller, 1908 - 1979, the 49th governor of New York, 1959 - 1973, and the 41st Vice President of the United States]'s son [Michael Clark Rockefeller, 1938 - 1961], was eaten by cannibals in New Guinea (remember that?).  All right.  It was on the Archbolds' [1961] New Guinea expedition.  It was financed by the Archbolds.  Now, you have to know these things, and know these people.  If you, you read and getting them to leave you their land and estate when they die, which they won't do.  No reason why they should.


   But we have a growth society   But it is growth, compulsive growth, in everything.  It's insatiable.   Not, there's no effort to improve the quality of anything.  Nobody cares about quality.  All the drive is to increase the size, and the quantity, which is exactly what cancer does.  Cancer is growth in the body that you cannot stop.  


   Now, I'll show you exactly what our economy is, by giving you a massive diagram, next time, of income and money flows in our society.


   Anyone who didn't get back their examination and I suppose they are not here to-day   I would like to get rid of these exams which were not picked up.



Next Part - "The World Since 1914" Final Lecture (7 May 1976)

Lectures by Carroll Quigley

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